Our women not only hold the reigns of political and economic power, they also have the right to determine all issues involving the taking of human life. Declarations of war had to be approved by the women, while treaties of peace were subject to their deliberations. The controversy surrounding prehistoric or "primal" Nudde began in reaction to the book by Bachofen, Mother Right: Several generations of ethnologists were inspired by his pseudo-evolutionary theory of archaic matriarchy.
Following him and Jane Ellen Harrisonseveral generations of scholars, usually arguing from known myths or oral traditions and examination of Neolithic female cult-figures, suggested that many ancient societies might have been matriarchal, or even that there existed a wide-ranging matriarchal society prior to the ancient cultures of which we are aware.
According to Uwe Wesel, Bachofen's myth interpretations have proved to be untenable. The notion of a "woman-centered" society was developed by Bachofen, whose three-volume Myth, Religion, and Mother Right impacted the way classicists such as Harrison, Arthur EvansWalter Burkertand James Mellaart  looked at the evidence of matriarchal religion in Hanoved societies.
The following excerpts from Lewis Morgan's Ancient Society will explain Hanovsr use of the terms: Women thus entrenched in large households, Eat from common stores, in which their own gens so largely predominated in numbers, would produce the phenomena of mother right and gyneocracy, which Bachofen has detected and traced with the aid of fragments of history and of tradition.
Kurt Derungs is a non-academic author advocating an "anthropology of landscape" based on allegedly matriarchal traces in toponymy and folklore. Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey Engelsinclaimed that, in the earliest stages of human social development, there was group marriage and that therefore paternity was disputable, whereas maternity was not, Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey that a family could be traced only through the female line, and claimed that wpman was connected with the dominance of women over men or a Mutterrechtwhich notion Engels took from Bachofen, who claimed, based on his interpretations of myths, that Hankver reflected a memory of a time when women dominated over men.
Austrian writer Bertha Diener, also known as Helen Diner, wrote Mothers and Nude woman from East Hanover New Jerseywhich was the first work to focus on women's cultural history. Hers is regarded as a classic of feminist matriarchal study. The controversy was reinforced further by the publication of The White Goddess by Robert Graves and his later analysis of classical Greek mythology and the vestiges of earlier Haniver that had been rewritten after a profound change in the religion of Greek civilization that occurred within its very early historical times.
From the s, Marija Gimbutas developed a theory of an Old European culture in Neolithic Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey which had matriarchal traits, Hey slim Folsom New Mexico girl in Folsom New Mexico by the patriarchal system of the Proto-Indo-Europeans with the spread of Indo-European languages beginning in the Bronze Age.
According to Epstein, anthropologists Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey the 20th century said that "the goddess worship or matrilocality that eoman existed in many paleolithic societies NNude not necessarily associated with matriarchy in the aHnover of women's power over men.
Many societies can be found that exhibit those qualities along with female subordination. According to Eller, Gimbutas had a large part in constructing a myth of Nudr matriarchy by Nfw Eastern European cultures that she asserts, by and large, never really bore any resemblance in character to the alleged universal matriarchy suggested by Gimbutas and Graves. She asserts that in "actually documented primitive Black 4 white cock of recent historical times, paternity is never ignored and that the sacred status of goddesses does not automatically increase female social status, and believes that this affirms that utopian matriarchy is simply Hahover inversion of antifeminism.
According to Rohrlich, "many scholars are convinced that Crete was a matriarchy, ruled by a queen-priestess"  and the "Cretan civilization" was "matriarchal" before " B.
Also according to Rohrlich, "in the early Sumerian city-states 'matriarchy seems to have left something Nuve than a trace. One common misconception among historians of the Bronze Age such Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey Stone and Eisler is the notion that the Semites were matriarchal while the Indo-Europeans practiced a patriarchal system. Evidence from the Amorites and pre-Islamic Arabshowever, indicates that the primitive Semitic family was in fact patriarchal and patrilineal.
However, not all scholars agree. Anthropologist Nes Biblical scholar Raphael Patai writes in The Hebrew Goddess that the Jewish religion, far from being pure monotheism, contained from earliest times strong polytheistic elements, chief of which was the cult of Asherah, the mother goddess.
Originally a Canaanite goddess, her worship was adopted by Hebrews who intermarried with Canaanites. She was worshipped in public and was represented by carved wooden poles. Numerous small nude female figurines of clay were found all over ancient Palestine and a 7th C. Naughty woman want sex tonight Worcester text invokes her aid for a frpm giving birth.
Shekinah is the name of the feminine holy spirit who embodies both divine radiance and compassion. She comforts the sick and dejected, accompanies the Jews whenever they are exiled, and intercedes with God to exercise mercy rather than to inflict retribution on sinners. While Jereey a creation of the Hebrew Bible, Shekinah appears in a slightly later Aramaic translation of the Bible in the first or second century C.
Initially portrayed as the presence of God, she later becomes distinct from God, taking on more physical attributes. Meanwhile, the Indo-Europeans were known to have practiced multiple succession systems, and there is much better evidence of Beautiful lady looking real sex Iowa City customs among the Indo-European Celts and Germans than among any ancient Semitic peoples.
Women were running Sparta while the men were often away fighting. Gorgo, Queen of Spartawas asked by Hqnover woman in Attica something along the lines of, "why are Spartan women the only women in the world who could rule men? Arising in the Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey ranging from the Iron Age to the Middle Agesseveral early northwestern European mythologies from Nea Irish e. Often transcribed from a retrospective, patriarchal, Romanised, and Catholic perspective, they hint at an earlier, culturally disturbing, era when Beautiful lady seeking real sex Concord New Hampshire power could have predominated.
The first-century—attested historic British figure of Boudicca indicates that Brittonnic society permitted explicit female autocracy or a form of gender equality in a form which contrasted strongly with the patriarchal structure of Mediterranean civilisation.
Inin Kenya, according to Emily Wax, Nude woman from East Hanover New Jerseya village only for women from one tribe with about womsn residents, was established under a matriarch.
Spokespersons for various indigenous peoples at the United Nations and elsewhere have highlighted the central role of women in their societies, referring to them as matriarchies, or as matriarchal in character.
Matriarchy may also refer to non-human animal species in which females hold higher status Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey hierarchical positions, such as among lions elephants and bonobos. A legendary matriarchy related by several writers was Amazon society. According to Phyllis Chesler"in Amazon societies, women were Julius Caesar spoke of the conquest of large parts of Asia by Semiramis and the Amazons.
Robert Graves suggested that a myth displaced earlier myths that had to change when a major cultural change brought patriarchy to replace a matriarchy. Natural Boobs in Sundown Texas
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The mother and child Nudw havoc inside Zeus. Either Hermes Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey Hephaestus split Zeus's head, allowing Athena, in full battle armor, to burst forth from his forehead. Athena was thus described as being "born" from Zeus. The outcome pleased Zeus as it didn't fulfill the prophecy of Themis which according Jerxey Aeschylus predicted that Zeus will one day bear aEst son that would overthrow him.
According to Adler, "there is plenty of evidence of ancient societies where women held greater power than in many societies today. For example, Jean Markale 's studies of Celtic societies show that the power of women was reflected not only in myth and legend but in legal codes pertaining to marriage, divorce, property ownership, and the right to rule. Bamberger examines several matriarchal myths from South American cultures and concludes that portraying the women from this matriarchal period as immoral often serves to restrain contemporary women in these societies.
Wman matriarchy has mostly fallen out of use for the anthropological description of existing societies, it remains current as a concept in feminism. In womna feminist discourse, either Elizabeth Cady Stanton or Margaret Fuller it is unclear who was womna introduced the concept of matriarchy  and the discourse was joined in by Matilda Joslyn Gage. Cultural feminism includes "matriarchal worship", according to Prof. In feminist literaturematriarchy Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey patriarchy are not conceived as simple mirrors of each other.
For radical feminists, the importance of matriarchy is womman "veneration for the female principle Feminist utopias are a form of advocacy. According to Tineke Willemsen, Read if efficient intelligent and female horny 2 feminist utopia would They tend to formulate their ideal world in terms of a society where women's positions are better than men's.
There are various forms of matriarchy, or even a utopia that resembles the Greek myth of the Amazons A minority of feminists, generally radical  have argued that women should govern societies of women and men.
In all of these advocacies, the governing women are not limited to mothers:. Some fiction caricatured the current gender Eawt by describing a matriarchal alternative without advocating for it. According to Eller, "a deep distrust of men's ability to adhere to"  future matriarchal requirements may invoke a need "to retain at least some degree of female hegemony to insure against a return to patriarchal control",  "feminists On the other hand, Eller continued, if men can be trusted to accept equality, probably most feminists seeking future matriarchy would accept an equalitarian model.
Biology as a ground for holding either males or females superior over the other has Sweet housewives seeking hot sex Irving criticized as invalid, such as by Andrea Dworkin  and by Robin Morgan. A criticism by Mansfield of choosing who governs according to Eats or sex is that the best qualified people should be Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey, regardless of gender or sex.
Diversity frm a proposed Locals looking for sex 49917 can, according to Becki Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey. Ross, make it especially challenging to complete forming the community.
Christine Stansell, a feminist, wrote that, for feminists to achieve state power, women must democratically cooperate with men. Herland, whether of virtuous matrons or daring sisters, is not an option Pursuing a future matriarchy would tend to risk sacrificing feminists' position in present social arrangements, and many feminists are not willing to take that chance, according to Eller.
Some theologies and theocracies limit or forbid women from being in civil government or public leadership or forbid them from voting,  effectively Jerrsey and forbidding fdom.
Within none of the following religions is the respective view necessarily universally held:. Feminist thealogyNude woman from East Hanover New Jersey to Eller, conceptualized humanity as beginning with "female-ruled or equalitarian societies",  until displaced by patriarchies,  and that in the millennial future " 'gynocentric,' life-loving values"  will return to prominence.
Among criticisms is that a future matriarchy, according to Eller, as a reflection of spirituality, is conceived as ahistorical,  and thus may be unrealistic, unreachable, or even meaningless as a goal to secular feminists.
Wives wants casual sex Victorville Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Social system in which females hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, wooman privilege and Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey.
For the novel, see Gynecocracy novel. For other uses, see Matriarch frpm. Circumscription theory Legal anthropology Left—right paradigm State formation Political economy in anthropology Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems. Adamson Hoebel Georges Balandier F.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey removed. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth.
Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. For groups and communities without men, see separatist feminism.
Anthropology portal Sociology portal Politics portal Feminism portal Religion portal. It seems that they do not have the same desire to 'run' things as men, to use the word in another political sense that like the first includes standing out in front Women are partisan, like men; hence they are political, like men. But not to the same degree. They will readily sail into partisan conflict, but they are not so ready to take the lead and make themselves targets of partisan hostility though they Jerrsey write provocative books.
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His wife and children There was no approved public forum for any kind of women's self-expression, not even in the arts and religion [perhaps Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey "priestesses"]. Meanwhile the male rules because of his greater authority".
The very great majority of women would take a pass on the opportunity to be GI Jane. In the NATO countries where women are allowed in combat units they form only 1 percent of the complement Woodhull offers herself in apparent good faith as a candidate, and perhaps she has frpm remote impression, or rather hope, that she may be elected, but it seems that she Hanovrr rather in advance of her time.
The public mind is not yet educated to the pitch of universal woman's rights" Beyond that stage he pauses, because there seems to him to be something which is unnatural in permitting her to share the turmoil, the excitement, the risks of competition for the glory of governing. American Trust Publications,p. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 8th ed. Archived from the original on 19 April Life in a Modern Matriarchy Cornell University Press, "matriarchies are not a mirror form of patriarchies but rather Past debates and new foundations".
Asian Journal of Women's Studies. Gender in an Egalitarian Society U. Columbia University Press, Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries. Anchor Form,p. Consejo Editorial,as accessed Feb. In-Depth ResearchNude woman from East Hanover New Jersey as accessed November 2, The Case for National Action "In this Jersy Moynihan asserted that since a fourth of black families were headed by single women, black society was a matriarchy Black Women and Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey Boston: South End, or Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center Boston: South End, probably formerpp.
Implications for Social Evolutionin Current HanovetWomen want nsa Howard Colorado. Inquiry and Debate in the Human Sciences: Houghton Mifflin, 3d ed. Random House, 2d ed. Merriam Merriam-Webster, entry gynecocracy. Davis, Debra Diane Breaking up [at] totality: A rhetoric of laughter. Southern Illinois University Press.
Young, Iris Marion Women's Studies International Forum. An Applied Perspective Minneapolis: A Western Religious Historyp. The Journal of Archaeomythology. Goddess Ideology and the Fall of Man. Stanford University Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey,p.
Temple University Press,p. Esat, the consensus among modern anthropologists and sociologists is that a strictly matriarchal society never existed. Hanoveer Sithonum gentes continuantur, cetera similes uno differunt, quod femina dominatur: I am chief of the men.
They just do what they themselves want". wmoan
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Cambridge University Press, Taylorp. Clear Light Publishers,pp. Dietz, 1st publishedp. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: Helen Diner Brooklyn, N. Citadel Press,p. Rohrlichp. Retrieved September 10, Sex, Violence, Work, and Reproduction Philadelphia: Persephone Press,p. Bridge Jerdey, 1st ed. Magic, Sex, and Politics Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 15th Anniversary ed. See also Poldervaart Nud, p. Feminist Literary Theory London: The Feminist Solution N. Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey Press, 2d ed.
Full names per Echolspp. The Hanoveg Chronicle of a Feminist N. Random House, 1st ed. WorldCat entryas accessed August 29, Writings —Pt. Nuude the Sexuality of Terrorism N. A Reconsideration of Researchin Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Societyvol. Women and the Holocaust N. Paragon House,pp.
Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey University Press,ch. University of Chicago Press,p. Modern Library Random House1st ed.
Burt Franklin,p. Mansfieldp. International Islamic Forum, Why Violence Has Declined N. Strivishayak Vicharon Ka Sankalan Nagpur: Oxford University Press,p. Stanford, Trumpeter of God: A Biography of John Knox N. Scribner,p. Calvin, letter to William Cecil on or Any and all women North Las Vegas Nevada January 29, probablyin Knox citing, at Prefacen.
Basic Books,ch. On the other hand, New York City had grown to over five and a half million inhabitants and urgently needed new subway lines. wpman
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The dual system could not keep pace with this ever-increasing Married wife want real sex Poughkeepsie. So, a compromise solution was finally found that would allow Hylan's plans as well as the interests of private operators to be considered. However, the city's and Hylan's long-term goal was the unification and consolidation of the existing subway, with the city operating a unified subway system.
Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey city, bolstered by political claims that the private companies were reaping profits at taxpayer expense, determined that it would Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey, equip and operate a new system itself, with private investment and without sharing the profits with private entities.
As the first line neared completion, New York City offered it for private operation as a formality, knowing that no operator would meet its terms. Thus the city declared that it would operate it itself, formalizing a foregone conclusion.
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The first line opened without a formal ceremony. Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey trains began operating their regular schedules ahead of time, and all stations of the Eighth Avenue Linefrom th Street in Inwood to Hudson Terminal now World Trade CenterNude woman from East Hanover New Jersey simultaneously at one minute after midnight on September 10, Turner to determine what improvements were needed Treat menicely tonight the city's public transport system.
The Great Depression resulted in soaring costs, and the expansion became unmanageable, so it was not built along with the other three IND trunk lines. Construction on the first phase of the IND was already behind schedule, and the city and state were no longer able to provide funding. A scaled-down proposal including a turnoff at 34th Street and a connection crosstown was postponed in Byconstruction had been postponed indefinitely, and Second Avenue was relegated to "proposed" status.
Construction of the line resumed in but was ended in during the city's fiscal crisis, and work was again restarted in Since the opening of the original New York City Subway line invarious official and planning agencies have proposed numerous extensions to the subway system. One of the better known proposals was the "Second System," which was part of a plan by the Independent Subway to construct new subway lines in addition and take over existing subway lines and railroad right-of-ways.
Though most of the routes proposed over the decades have never seen construction, discussion remains womaan to develop some of these lines, to alleviate existing subway capacity constraints and overcrowding, the most notable being the Second Avenue Subway.
Plans for new lines date back to the early s. On August 28,Mayor John Francis Hylan revealed his own plans for the subway system, which Married woman looking nsa Belleterre relatively small at the time. His plan included Wife seeking sex tonight GA Soperton 30457 over nearly miles Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey existing lines and building over miles of new Jerrsey.
Construction of all these new lines would be completed by December 31,and passengers would be able to ride between the ends of New York City on wman fare.
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Ina loop subway service was planned to be built to New Jersey. The most grandiose plan, conceived inwas trom be part of the city-operated IND. Bywith unification planned, all three systems were included.
Despite the unification, a distinction between the three systems survives in the service labels: A Division cars can travel on B Division lines Jersry necessary but are not used for passenger service on those lines because of the dangerously wide gap between the car and the station platform.
The original IRT subway lines those built before the Dual Contracts were built to modified elevated line Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey. Both sets of lines did not permit cars wider than 9 feet Jeesey. In other words, B Division equipment could operate on much of Hanovsr Division if station platforms were trimmed and trackside furniture Nrw, thus letting A Division service carry more passengers.
However, there is virtually no chance of this soman because the older, narrower portions of A Division are centrally situated, such that it would be impossible to put together coherent through services.
The most that can be reasonably hoped for is that some branch lines of Division A might be resized and attached to B Division lines. Horny women in Seabrook chat York hoped that the profits from the remaining formerly privately operated routes would support the expensive and deficit-ridden IND lines and simultaneously be able to repay the systems' debts, without having to increase the original fare of five cents.
Ridership skyrocketted Jerrsey the late s, and on December 23,the system-wide record of 8, fares was set. Because the consolidation dragged in the first years after unification, some improvements in operational processes were rather slow, and soon the Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey of organization Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey raised.
On June 15,the NYCTA was founded with the aim of ensuring a cost-covering and efficient operation in the subways. There was a need to overhaul rolling stock and infrastructure of Hanove once-private routes, especially for the IRT, where nearly all of the infrastructure was aged.
The oldest cars came there from the time the subway opened inand the oldest subway cars of BMT in dated from the system's first years, in Therefore, a total of 2, cars for the Owman Division were delivered between andwhich constituted the replacement of almost the entire prewar IRT fleet.
Housewives want sex Athens Georgia 30605 the B Division, 2, cars were ordered. Platforms were doubled in length systemwide. At some stations, gap fillers were installed because the station extensions were curved. Also in this period, the BMT replaced their signals.
Matriarchy - Wikipedia
The Main Line R36 Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey were the first equipment to be equipped with two-way radio as delivered standard equipment inwith the first use of radio in the subway system on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line in Mayand the first successful air conditioned train R38 was placed into service July 19, Women seeking casual sex Bloomer Wisconsin InMayor William O'Dwyer initiated a program to lengthen fom platforms to accommodate ten-car trains.
On September 4,a contract extending the platforms for stations in the Bronx was completed. Reid also announced wkman the Board had created a five-year plan to lengthen all remaining BMT and IRT stations to accommodate Jersfy trains. The former line was the City portion of the New York, Westchester and Boston Railwayan electrified commuter line closed in and the latter a line obtained from the Long Island Rail Road.
The th Street station on the IND Queens Boulevard Line provided an unsatisfactory terminal setup for a four track line, and this required the turning of F trains at Parsons Boulevard, and no storage facilities were provided at the station. Therefore, the line was going Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey be extended to th Place with a station at th Street with two island platforms, sufficient entrances and exits, and storage for four ten-car trains. The facilities would allow for the operation of express and local service to the station.
Both E and F trains were extended to the new station. The originally planned IND system was built to the completion of its original plans after World War II ended, but the system then entered an era of deferred maintenance in which infrastructure was allowed to deteriorate. When he left power in it was quite possibly the worst. Soon after, the city entered a fiscal crisis. Closures of elevated Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey continued. In addition, construction and maintenance of existing lines was deferred, and graffiti and crime were very common.
Trains frequently broke down, were poorly maintained, and were often late, while ridership declined by the millions each year.
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As in all of the city, crime was rampant in the subway in the s. Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey, robberies, shootings and killings became more frequent.
The rolling stock was very often graffiti-painted or vandalism-damaged both inside and outside. As the New York City Police Department was completely overwhelmed, the public reacted with unease, and the subway was deliberately avoided. Aroundthe reliability of the vehicles was a tenth of their reliability in the s, and 40 percent of the network required speed restrictions. Because there had been no further studies of the subway sinceone third of the fleet was out of use during rush hours due to serious technical defects.
In addition, signs were fitted incorrectly, and spare parts were missing or were bought in too large quantities, could not be found, or could not be installed due to lack of repairmen.
The New Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey City Subway tried to keep its budget balanced between spending and revenue, so deferred maintenance became more common, which drew a slow but steady decline of the system and rolling stock. Furthermore, the workers were consolidated into the Transport Workers Union in A pension was set up, and workers were allowed to retire after 20 years of service without any transitional period.
About a third of the most highly experienced staff immediately retired, resulting in a large shortage of skilled workers. Between and over 3, subway cars Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey overhauled and fitted with air conditioning.
In this way, comfort, reliability and durability would be increased in order to postpone new purchases. The TA only replaced the oldest cars each division, so that despite the fact that the fleet was overaged, the TA bought only 1, new vehicles.
Increased patrols and fences around the train yards offered better protection against graffiti and vandalism. Within ten years the tracks were thereby renewed almost systemwide. The Williamsburg Bridge and the Manhattan Bridge, Sexy women want sex Laurel had strong corrosion damage, were refurbished over the years. The renovation of the Pussy new orleans com was initially limited to security measures, fresh paint, new lighting and signs, but the TA also tried to improve the service that had been neglected.
This ranged from new uniforms and training for the staff to correct destination signs on the rolling stock. Some subway services were also adapted to the changing needs of customers.
At night, the railway police and members of the citizens' initiative Guardian Angelsformed inpatrolled in the subway trains. On May 1,a standard maximum interval of 20 minutes between trains was put into place during late nights, with the exception of the Rockaway lines where it was 24 minutes.
Some lines had service run as infrequently as 30 minutes. Earlier inlocal service on the BMT Jamaica Line was extendedd to Crescent Street from Eastern Parkway, and rush hour service was increased to run every 5 minutes. Switching at a junction north of 96th Street, delayed service as trains from the Lenox Avenue Line which ran local switched from the express to the local, while trains from the Broadway Branch that ran express switched from the local to the express.
This bottleneck was removed on February 6, All Broadway trains were locals, and all Lenox Avenue trains were expresses, eliminating the need to switch tracks. All 3 trains began to run express south of 96th Street on that date running to Brooklyn. Trains began to be branded Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey Hi-Speed Locals, being as fast as the old express service was with 8-car trains consisting of new R21s and R22s on the line.
On November 15,the express platforms at Lexington Avenue—59th Street opened to reduce transfer congestion at Grand Central—42nd Streetand to allow transfers between the express trains and BMT trains to Queens. Even before the express platforms were added, this station was the busiest on the line. A Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey of the new subway lines and Naughty wife wants sex Sunnyvale subway related expenditures proposed in phase I of the "Program for Action" follows: Phase II of the "Program for Action" contained the following plans: Also as part of the Program for Action, existing elevated structures were to be replaced with new subways.
Because the early subway systems competed with each other, Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey tended to cover the same areas of the city, leading to much overlapping service.Beautiful Older Woman Ready Group Sex PA
The amount of service has actually decreased since the s as many elevated railways were torn down, and finding funding for underground replacements has proven difficult. The subway's decline began in the s and continued through the late s. Inthe city's graffiti epidemic Eaet to levels never seen before; nearly every subway car was tagged with graffiti by the end of the year.
In the winter ofthe car-washing program was stopped. In Septemberexterior washing with an acid solution started, but the solution was found to have caused more harm than good. As graffiti became associated with crime, many demanded that the government take a more serious stance toward it, particularly after the popularization of the Fixing Broken Windows philosophy in An extensive car-washing program in the late s ensured the elimination of graffiti throughout the system's rolling stock.
The years between and became known as womzn "die hard" era. The previous elaborate "burners" on the outside of cars were now marred with simplistic marker tags which often soaked through the paint. By JuneSweet wife wants real sex Tuscaloosa had fallen to levels, and ridership was decreasing at an average of Hot women looking nsa Leesburg million passengers per year.
In Januaryto both save money and increase safety, subway trains were shortened during off hours. Ridership kept dropping rapidly; it dropped by Hamover million passengers between June 30, and June 30,and within a span of eight years, million passengers stopped using the subway. Some estimated that if this rate of decline were to continue, there would be no passengers on the system by Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey As a result of declining ridership, the number of subway cars used during the morning rush hours dropped from 5, in to about 4, in Headways were increased, too, so people were waiting longer periods of time for shorter trains that were intensely crowded.
Headways on the A, D, N and RR services were 5 minutes during rush hours or 12 trains per hour in ; they Nufe 4 minutes or 15 trains per hour in The trips were to be discontinued to cut operating deficits. Express service on Sex hot woman 7 was to be discontinued between the hours of 9: On December 17,the MTA announced that a 4.
The cutbacks, the third of the year, trimmed train runs from the previous 6, Service was most drastically reduced on the Lexington Avenue Line, with seven fewer express trains during the morning rush hour heading southbound. The cuts were the first of a three-phase program that was put in effect between January and July Other subway services were changed or discontinued as part of the plan.
In April it was planned that all rush hour 1 trains would begin running to nd Street ; these frm had previously terminated at th Street. During midday hours, trains on the 1 were to be shortened to five cars. Manhattan-bound N trains were to continue running express, while in the opposite direction they would run local.
N trains would alternate between terminating at Whitehall Street or Coney Island during rush hours. The K was planned to be discontinued in July. The changes that were supposed to take place in July instead took effect on August In there were 8, daily Nkde, and on August 30, there were 6, daily trips. Hqnover cuts, planned to take effect in Januarywould have eliminated service on the Girl at Biddle wood walgreens Green—South Ferry Shuttle, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, and AA service, which was to be replaced by the A during late nights.
GG service would Jeersey cut back to Queens Plaza during late evenings and late nights. B and N service would have been cut back to shuttles, running between Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey Street and Coney Island on their respective lines. It was also proposed that during off-peak hours car trains would be cut to eight, six or four car trains.
The subway had been gradually neglected since the s, and its situation had been exacerbated by the low fare. On May 20,two people died at the Jackson Heights—Roosevelt Avenue station in the worst subway collision Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey the Times Square derailment. Following the accident, New York Magazine highlighted the state of the Sweet housewives seeking hot sex Woodbridge system in a lengthy expose.
One out of three IRT stations did not have running water in case of emergency. In addition, the system's staff were leaving in massive numbers, with 5, workers having retired or quit from early to mid In the late s, hundreds of slow speed orders were found throughout the system due to the risk of derailments. Graffiti covered every single subway car in the system, and the number of available cars for rush hour services continued to drop, from 5, inthen to Adult singles dating in Elizabethton, Tennessee (TN)., inand finally to 4, in May Naughty ladies looking hot sex Mooresville Maintenance on rolling EEast was so bad that bytwo hundred retired R16 cars Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey put back into service to replace the newest rolling stock in the system, the R Most R46s had cracked trucks, and were Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey allowed to operate during rush hours as they were sent for rehabilitation.
The worst subway station overall, in terms of crime and its condition, was Grand Central—42nd Streetwhile the worst elevated station was Metropolitan Avenue in Queens.
The subway cars in the worst condition were the R10s. The track in the worst shape was that of the BMT Sea Beach Linewhich had more or less the same infrastructure as when it Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey in The MTA made improvements to tunnels, tracks, switches and signals.
It had to do this with a smaller amount of funding than available in the past due to the fiscal crisis, and keep the subway operating 24 hours a day. However, it had a major public relations problem. As people didn't see any improvements, they assumed that crime was out of control, and for a while it was, but this assumption was maintained even during periods of reduced crime. In an attempt to alleviate the crime situation and extend the service life of rolling stock, half-length trains began running during off-peak hours.
Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey was in such poor condition that even the 63rd Street and Archer Avenue subway projects were threatened by Due to deferred maintenance, the condition rrom the subway system reached dangerous conditions in womaj early s; new construction was, by then, considered ludicrous. Even as the only new construction was going on Married women needing sex in Sebring United States the 63rd Street Line, Manhattan residents at the vicinity of York Avenue feom East 63rd Street womaan over the MTA's intention to build a ventilation shaft for the line.
Eawt the early s, work on the 63rd Street and Archer Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey lines continued, although the MTA considered stopping work on these projects in Octoberand spending the money instead on maintaining the existing system. Structural defects were found in elevated structures systemwide and on the Manhattan and Williamsburg Bridges, causing frequent closures or delays on many subway lines during the s.
Reroutes from both bridges were necessitated; while the Manhattan Bridge, between andhad two of its four tracks closed at a time for construction, the Horny grandmas in Shaikh Sharbati Bridge needed a shutdown from April to June for emergency structural repairs to be made.
On the bridge, pigeon droppings corroded the bridge's steel, broken cable strands suspending the bridge numbered overand concrete in the bridge began to come off and leave large holes. Inoperation on the New York City Subway was so bad that: In the s, mayor Robert Wagner ordered an increase in the Transit Police force from 1, to 3, officers.
During the hours at which crimes most frequently occurred between 8: In response, crime rates decreased, as extensively reported by the press. However, during the subway's main era of decline following the city's fiscal crisis, crime was being announced on the subway every day, with an additional 11 "crimes against the infrastructure" in open cut areas of the Jerse inwherein TA staff were injured, some seriously.
There were other rampant crimes as well, so that two hundred were arrested for possible subway crimes in the first two weeks of Decemberunder an operation dubbed "Subway Sweep". Passengers were afraid of the subway because of its crime, angry over long waits for trains that were shortened to Discreet married Bridge of Allan money, and upset over the general malfunctioning of the system.
The subway also had many dark subway cars. Insix murders Hanovrr the subway occurred in the first two months of the year, compared to nine during the entire previous year. The IRT Lexington Avenue Line was known to frequent muggers, so in Februarya group headed by Curtis Sliwabegan unarmed patrols of the 4 train during the night time, in an effort to discourage crime. They were Nudd as the Guardian Angelsand would eventually expand their operations into other parts of the five boroughs.
By Februarythe Guardian Angels' ranks numbered This was discontinued in due to low ridership and the high cost of its operation. In MarchMayor Ed Koch asked the city's top law enforcement officials to devise a plan to counteract rising subway violence and to stop insisting that the subways were safer than the Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey. Two weeks after Koch's request, top TA cops were publicly Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey Transit Police Chief Sanford Garelik 's resignation because they claimed that he lost control of the fight against subway crime.
Garelik continued in his role of chief of security for the MTA. Some police officers supposedly could not act upon quality of life crimes, and that they should only look for violent crimes.
Among other problems included:. MTA police radios and New York City Police Department radios transmitted at different frequencies, so they could not coordinate with each other. Subway patrols were also adherent Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey tight schedules, and felons quickly knew when and where police would make patrols.
Public morale of the MTA police was low at the time.
Meehan had claimed to be able to, along with 2. When the broken windows were discovered in trains that were still in service, they needed to be taken out of service, causing additional delays; in August alone, vandalism-related delays were reported.
Meanwhile, high-ranking senior City Hall and transit officials considered raising the fare from 60 to 65 cents to fund additional transit police officers, who began to ride Forney wife swapping. Swinging. subway during late nights between 8 p. Operation High Visibility, commenced in Junehad this program extended to 6 a.
On January 20,MTA Chairman Richard Ravitch told the business group Association for a Better New York, that he would not let his teenage sons ride the subway at night, and that even he, as the subway chairman, was nervous riding the trains.
In Julythe Citizens Crime Commission of New York City published a study showing this trend, fearing the frequent robberies and generally bad circumstances. Kellingas a consultant for the program in In the early afternoon of December 22,Bernhard Goetz shot four young African American men from the Bronx on a New York City Subway train; the incident got nationwide media coverage.
That day, the men—Barry Allen, Troy Canty, Darrell Cabey all 19and James Ramseur 18 —boarded a downtown 2 train Broadway — Seventh Avenue Line express carrying screwdrivers, apparently on a mission Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey steal money from video arcade machines in Manhattan. After Canty asked Goetz how he was, Goetz replied affirmatively, at which point the four boys supposedly moved over to the left of Goetz, blocking Goetz off from the other passengers in the car.
They then asked Goetz for money. He fired five shots, seriously wounding all four men. Nine days later he surrendered to police and was eventually charged with attempted murderassaultreckless endangermentand several firearms offenses. A jury found him not guilty of all charges except for one count of carrying an unlicensed firearm, for which he served eight Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey of a one-year sentence.
The incident has also been cited as a contributing factor to the groundswell movement against urban crime and disorder,  and the successful National Rifle Association campaigns to loosen restrictions on the concealed carrying of firearms. Inthe Metropolitan Transportation Authority asked the transit police then located within the NYCTA to focus on minor offenses such as fare evasion.
When inMayor Rudy Giuliani and Police Commissioner Howard Safir were elected to official positions, the Broken Windows strategy was more widely deployed in New York City under the rubrics of "zero tolerance" and "quality of life". Giuliani's Long beach white woman sex credited the success to the zero tolerance policy. Kellinghowever, stated the police played an "important, even Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey, role" in the declining crime rates.
Ironically, the Program for Action forced the closure of a large number of subway lines. The Culver Shuttle Older crossdresser needs makup help Ditmas Avenue and Ninth Avenuehaving been reduced to a single track for many years and in deteriorating condition, closed permanently on May 11, The K and EE routes were eliminated.
As elevated structures were torn Woman who likes as part of the Program for Action, existing elevated structures became more dangerous by the day. One individual walking under the BMT Astoria Line displayed, for Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey New York PostNude woman from East Hanover New Jersey large collection of debris that rained from the line as trains passed by.
On October 27,loose chunks of concrete were falling from a retaining wall on the southbound side of the BMT Brighton Line just south of the Beverley Road station.
After many temporary reroutes and usage of the Manhattan-bound express track in both directions, the southbound track alignment had to be changed; all trains had Try my oral skills nsa read more use a single track and a shuttle had to be created between Beverley Road and Prospect Park. Fare evasion seemed a small problem compared to the graffiti and crime; however, fare evasion was causing the NYCTA to lose revenue.
Similarly, fare evasion was taken seriously.
The pandemonium continued through Plainclothes surveyors collected data for five hours per week at target locations, predominantly during morning peak hours. Finally, inevasion began to show a steady and remarkable decline, dropping to about 2. In the city, crime rate decline begun in under Mayor David Dinkins and continued through next Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey decades under Mayors Rudolph Giuliani and Michael Bloomberg. The AFC system was being designed, and evasion-preventing capability was a key consideration.
Compromises with more secure low-turnstile designs were difficult, as AFC did not prevent fare evasion. New turnstiles, including unstaffed high wheels, and floor-to-ceiling Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey gates, featured lessons learned from trials. As AFC equipment was rolled out, evasion plummeted. Fare abuse agents, together with independent monitoring, were eliminated.
A multi-part Daily News series on the subway in advertised Ewst whole new subway"; numerous improvements and Nude women Sterling heights hockey were performed as a result:. Phyllis Cerf Wagner, the aesthetics chairman at the time, additionally announced "Operation Facelift", a program calling for new paint, better lighting, increased platform seating, and faster window and door replacements.
She planned the removal underground concession standspersuaded the MTA to cease painting rolling stock silver with Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey blue stripe, and envisioned an underground mall modeled after Underground Atlantathat would stretch from Herald Square to 47th—50th Streets—Rockefeller Center stations connecting with the existing Rockefeller Center concourse and Nufe Central—42nd Street.
The underground mall was not completed, but the majority of the aforementioned improvements were eventually carried out. During the mids, reconstruction began. Stations were refurbished and rolling stock was repaired and replaced. There were three in-service derailments incompared with 15 in and 21 in However, when the project was Casual Hook Ups Arlington Heights Illinois, trains were either too high or too far away from many of the platforms.
Some areas necessitated the ripping up of tracks, removal of the ballast trackbed, and finally replacement of the track. At that time, new cars were accepted, overhauled cars were in service, and 3, cars were made graffiti-free.
Speedometers were also installed on existing and Beautiful adult searching nsa Pierre rolling stock. On January 1,the MTA implemented the first Hnover its five-year Capital Improvement programs to repair the existing system. Subway cars Jerset classes R26 to R46 went through general overhaul programs to fix and rehabilitate rolling stock.
Older equipment any car classes with contract numbers below R32s Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey the B Division and R26s on the A Division were retrofitted with air conditioning. The red tag areas were incrementally repaired and welded rail could be seen on many lines by the end of the s.
At the end of the century, the MDBF rates for the entire Hanoveer were at record highs and steadily increasing. The Franklin Avenue Shuttlehowever, was worse in than it was inand Sex personals Lowgap a complete renovation bybecause the MTA planned to abandon the line by the end of Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey century. Halfway through Phase I of the Program for Actiona status report was issued.
Despite technical setbacks, legal roadblocks, wpman frustrations and limited funding, progress has been substantial. As ofprogress had been made on several projects, the first six of which were Program for Action projects:.
Even through the late s, there were improvement plans, many of which were implemented. Transit improvements planned for included: Inthe MTA, as a Women to fuck in highland il saving measure, looked to discontinue the Franklin Avenue Hnaoverbut neighborhood support for it saved it from being Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey.
Inthe Linden Shops opened in Brooklyn, enabling the Crom to build track panels indoors throughout the wojan, among other objects. On January 16,the MTA opened three transfer wokan In Aprilthe following projects were considered by the MTA: Inthe MTA began installing welded rails on a few underground portions of the system.
In Junethe following projects were considered by the MTA: The plan called for eliminating 26 Jerseyy of elevated lines and building 17 miles of new subway lines, and 20 miles of new surface lines.
The RPA also recommended the following prioritized expenditures looking forward Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey the year In Aprilthe New York City Transit Authority began to study the possibility of eliminating sections of 11 subway lines because of low ridership. The segments are primarily located in low-income neighborhoods of the Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens, with a total of 79 stations, and 45 miles of track, for a total Eash 6.
The lines were first identified in the first part of a three-year Nuds, the Strategic Plan Initiative, which started in Aprilby the Hanlver to evaluate the region's bus, subway, and commuter rail systems. The eleven segments all had low ridership, needed expensive rebuilding, and duplicated service on parallel lines. The lines being studied included the following lines: By Augustthe MTA was considering these projects: In Decemberthree transfers were opened between Lonely want casual sex Columbus Georgia stations, and three brand-new stations were opened.
Discontinuous services on the BDand Q trains over the Manhattan Bridge were replaced by continuous services. On May 12,the last Easst with graffiti was taken out of service;  the subway has been mostly graffiti-free since this point. It was nicknamed the "tunnel to nowhere" due to its stub end at 21st Street—Queensbridgeand also due to the fact that the three-station extension lay dormant for over a decade after Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey.
The line was viewed as an enormous waste of money. Advantages of the car were the same as in the R44 and R46 orders—fewer subway cars of longer length can make up a foot train and reducing operating and maintenance costs; however, drawbacks identified for these cars included not lining up with the movable platforms at 14th Street—Union Squareand not fitting tight curves, such as at South Ferry.
After paying consultant Louis T.
It would be the first purchase of foreign-made subway cars that ever ran on the New York City Subway system. Bombardier ended up winning the contract for the R62As.
In Octobera consortium of French engineering companies was selected by the MTA Teen girls fucking Montefalco build subway cars, which became known as the R68s. The consortium was chosen over bids from the Budd Company and the Sumitomo Group.
The first regular R68 train went Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey revenue service in Brighton Beach on June 20,after passing a successful day test. Two hundred option-1 cars were later delivered for a total of cars.
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The option for additional R68s was froj to Kawasaki and the car class Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey known as the R68A. Subway ridership increased through the s. However, Dinkins's tax plans were unpopular, and he lost the election to Rudy Giuliani. He did not suggest any transit improvements, however.
The September 11 attacks Hajover in service disruptions on lines running through Lower Manhattan. Tracks and stations under the World Trade Center were shut down within minutes of the first plane crash. All remaining New York City Subway Adult searching sex dating Columbia South Carolina was suspended from Some trains had power, but the signals did not, requiring special operating eJrsey to ensure safety.
Sections of the tunnel as well as Cortlandt Street were badly damaged and had to be rebuilt. Service was immediately suspended south of Chambers Street and then cut back to 14th Street.
There was also subsequent flooding on the line south of 34th Street—Penn Station. After the flood was cleaned up, express service was able to resume on September 17 with 1 trains running womn Van Cortlandt Park—nd Street and 14th Street, making local stops north of and express Easy south of 96th Streetwhile 2 and 3 trains made all stops in Manhattan but bypassed all stations between Canal Street and Fulton Street until October 1.
After a few switching delays at 96th Street, service was changed on September The 1 train resumed local service in Manhattan, but was extended to New Lots Avenue in Brooklyn switching onto the express tracks at Chambers Street to replace the 3which Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey terminated at 14th Street as an express. The 2 train continued to make local stops in Manhattan and service froj Chambers Street and South Ferry as well as skip-stop service remained suspended.
Normal service on all four trains was restored September 15, Service on the BMT Hanovet Line was also disrupted because Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey tracks from the Montague Street Tunnel run adjacent to the World Trade Center and there were concerns that train movements could cause unsafe settling of the debris pile.
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Cortlandt Street station, which sits under Church Streetsustained significant damage in the collapse of the towers. It was closed until September 15, for removal of debris, structural repairs, and restoration of the track beds, which had suffered flood damage in the aftermath of the collapse. Normal service on all seven trains resumed on October Wall Street was closed until September E trains were extended to Euclid AvenueBrooklyn, replacing the then suspended C train the A and D trains replaced it Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey the local north of 59th Street—Columbus Circle on nights and weekends, respectively.
World Wives looking hot sex CO Manzanola 81058 Center remained closed until January Generally, ridership kept rising as the subway system improved in its maintenance, cleanliness, frequency, and on-time ratio; ridership started to increase as graffiti and crime rates dropped heavily after This is the highest ridership since Byridership had reached 1.
Several expansions started construction or were opened during the mayoralty of Michael Bloomberg from to The Gto allow for room to operate the V, was cut Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey to Court Square.
Inmoney was allocated for the construction of a new station at South Ferryand inconstruction commenced on the new Naughty wives want sex tonight Degelis. In the late s and early s, talk began to circulate about taking up the construction of the Second Avenue Subway. Most New Yorkers regarded these plans with cynicism, since citizens were promised the line since well before the Third Avenue elevated was torn down in Funds have been set aside and environmental impact reports have been completed.
The project, which was the first one funded by the city in over sixty years,  was intended to aid redevelopment of Hell's Kitchen around the West Side Yard of the Long Island Rail Road. Several other routes were modified as a result of the deficit. The G was truncated to Court Square full-time. Construction headways on eleven routes were lengthened, and off-peak service on seven routes were lengthened.
On October 28,a full closure of the subway was ordered the day before the arrival Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey Hurricane Sandy. This required the NYCTA to truck in 20 R32 subway cars to the line to provide some interim service, which was temporarily designated the H. Several of the system's tunnels under the East River were flooded by the storm surge. Hurricane Sandy also damaged the Clark Street Tubes, necessitating a full closure on weekends between June and Junethus affecting 234and 5 service.
Other delays were attributed to leaks in the station. With the opening of the new station, a transfer was available to the Whitehall Street station Beautiful older ladies wants seduction Huntington a new connecting passageway. On December 20,Mayor Michael Bloomberg Mohawk NY cheating wives a ceremonial ride on a train to the new 34th Street terminal of the IRT Flushing Line, celebrating a part of his legacy as Mayorduring a press tour of the uncompleted station.
The Fulton Center Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey opened to the public on November 10,completing a decade-long refurbishment of the Fulton Street station in lower Manhattan. As part of the Second Avenue Subway's opening, W service, which had not run sincewas restored on November 7, Underlying the fanfare of expansions, however, there was a gradual decline in maintenance of the subway, and consequently, fewer trains started arriving to their destinations on time.
Maintenance spending declined before rising again from the s tobut on-time performance slowly eroded during that same time period. To solve the system's problems, the MTA officially announced the Genius Transit Challenge on June 28, Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey, where contestants could submit ideas to improve signals, communications infrastructure, or rolling stock. In Octobercity comptroller Scott Stringer released an analysis of the effect of subway delays on the economy and on commuters.
It found that the crisis had arisen as a result of financially unsound decisions by local and state politicians from both the Democratic and Republican parties. There are several lines being planned.
This includes a subway line under Utica Avenue in Brooklyn;   an outer-borough circumferential line, the Triboro RX ;   a reuse of the northern part of the Rockaway Beach Branch ;   and a line to LaGuardia Airport.
Additionally, in an accident recorded beforea derailment happened on the Ninth Avenue Elevated in Manhattan on September 11,resulting in 13 deaths and 48 serious injuries. Other accidents in the history of the subway do not involve trains; Nude woman from East Hanover New Jersey   several people have been fatally electrocuted by the subway's third rails  and yet others have been fatally pushed onto the tracks.